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In Arabic, text is justified by adding Kashidas. Kashidas are added to arabic characters to lengthen them. Whitespace is not modified.
Use automatic Kashida insertion to justify paragraphs of arabic text. Select the paragraph and from the Paragraph panel (Window > Type & Tables > Paragraph), choose a setting from the Insert Kashida drop-down list. The options available are: None, Short, Medium, Long, or Stylistic. Kashidas are only inserted if the paragraph is justified.
This setting is not applicable for paragraphs that have alignment settings. To apply Kashidas to a group of characters, select the characters and choose Kashidas from the Character panel menu. You can automatically apply ligatures to character pairs in Arabic and Hebrew. Ligatures are typographic replacement characters for certain letter pairs if they are available in a given Open Type font. When you choose Ligatures from the Character panel menu or Control panel menu, a standard ligature defined in the font is produced. • Select text. • Choose Ligatures from the Character panel menu or the Control panel menu.
However, some Open Type fonts include more ornate, optional ligatures, which can be produced when you choose Discretionary Ligatures. These ligatures are found at Character panel > OpenType > Discretionary Ligatures.
In the Arabic script, a diacritic or a diacritical mark is a glyph used to indicate consonant length or short vowels. A diacritical mark is placed above or below the script. For better styling of text, or improved readability of certain fonts, you can control the vertical or horizontal position of diacritical marks: • Select text that has diacritical marks • In the Character panel, modify the position of the diacritic marks relative to the script. Values you can change are, Adjust Horizontal Diacritic Position, and the Adjust Vertical Diacritic Position. When you are working in Arabic or Hebrew, you can select the type of digits you want to use. You can choose between Arabic, Hindi, and Farsi.
By default, in Arabic, the Hindi version is auto-selected, and in case of Hebrew, the Arabic type digits are selected. However, you can switch to Arabic digits, if necessary: • Select the digits in the text typed. • In the Character panel (Ctrl + T), use the Digits list to select the font that the digits must appear in. You can ensure that Arabic digits are used by enabling the Use Native Digits when typing in Arabic Scripts option. To use this option, choose Edit > Preferences > Advanced Type. Sentences that have more words that can fit into one line of text automatically wrap into the next line.
The type of text justification when wrapping occurs sometimes causes unnecessary spaces to appear in the line that are not aesthetically pleasing or linguistically correct. Hyphenation enables you to split the word at the end of a line, using a hyphen.
This fragmentation causes the sentence to wrap into the next line in a better way. Mixed text: The Kashida insertion feature affects how hyphenation occurs in mixed text. When enabled, Kashidas are inserted where applicable, and non-Arabic text is not hyphenated. When the Kashida feature is disabled, only non-Arabic text is considered for hyphenation. Hebrew text: Hyphenation is allowed. To enable hyphenation and customize settings, choose Paragraph panel > Panel menu > Hyphenation Settings. A font can have alternative shapes of certain letters of the alphabet.
These variations of the font face for some letters are generally available for stylistic or calligraphy purposes. In rare cases, justification alternates are used to justify and align paragraphs for specific needs. Justification alternates can be turned on at a paragraph level, where alternates are used wherever possible.
You can also turn on or off this feature at a character level. Justification alternates are available only in those fonts that have this feature integrated. Therefore, the option to turn them on or off is available only for supported fonts. Arabic fonts that contain justification alternates: Adobe Arabic, Myriad Arabic, and Adobe Naskh. Hebrew fonts that contain justification alternates: Adobe Hebrew and Myriad Hebrew. • InDesign Paragraph-level: Window > Paragraph panel > panel menu > Justification, and then choose an option from the Justification list. Character-level: Window > Character panel > panel menu > Justification Alternate option.
• Photoshop Character-level: Window > Character panel > Justification Alternates checkbox. Arabic and Hebrew users can set the direction of a table inserted in a document. Accordingly the order of cells and columns, default language, and the alignment of text is set. For an Arabic user, the rightmost column is the first column, and any additional columns are added beyond the leftmost column of the table. Table direction is also supported in the Story Editor (Ctrl + Y). To set the direction of a new table: • Click Table > Insert Table • In the Insert Table dialog box, choose from the Direction list to select the table direction.