Prvi poznani prednik Romanovih, Andrej Ivanovič Kobyla, je bil v 14. Stoletju bojar na dvoru moskovskih velikih knezov (leta 1347 je bil omenjen v dokumentu velikega knez Simeona Ivanoviča). Rodbina se je kasneje delila na veliko vej. Drevo dinastiya romanovih ki.
Background Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls many developmental processes in chordates, from early axis specification to late organogenesis. The functions of RA are chiefly mediated by a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. While RARs have been extensively studied in jawed vertebrates (that is, gnathostomes) and invertebrate chordates, very little is known about the repertoire and developmental roles of RARs in cyclostomes, which are extant jawless vertebrates. Here, we present the first extensive study of cyclostome RARs focusing on three different lamprey species: the European freshwater lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, and the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum. Results We identified four rar paralogs ( rar1, rar2, rar3, and rar4) in each of the three lamprey species, and phylogenetic analyses indicate a complex evolutionary history of lamprey rar genes including the origin of rar1 and rar4 by lineage-specific duplication after the lamprey-hagfish split. We further assessed their expression patterns during embryonic development by in situ hybridization.
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The results show that lamprey rar genes are generally characterized by dynamic and highly specific expression domains in different embryonic tissues. In particular, lamprey rar genes exhibit combinatorial expression domains in the anterior central nervous system (CNS) and the pharyngeal region. Conclusions Our results indicate that the genome of lampreys encodes at least four rar genes and suggest that the lamprey rar complement arose from vertebrate-specific whole genome duplications followed by a lamprey-specific duplication event. Moreover, we describe a combinatorial code of lamprey rar expression in both anterior CNS and pharynx resulting from dynamic and highly specific expression patterns during embryonic development. This ‘RAR code’ might function in regionalization and patterning of these two tissues by differentially modulating the expression of downstream effector genes during development. Developmental functions of vitamin A derivatives (also called retinoids) have been described in great detail in various vertebrate species since the first half of the twentieth century [ ]. Although a variety of retinoids are detectable in vertebrates [ ], all- trans retinoic acid (RA) is the main biologically active vitamin A derivative during embryogenesis [ - ].
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